BIONX SUPERMODEL 2

Contact: Eric Redenius
+1 (760) 473-4503
eredenius@bionetworth.com
Order BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 
BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 and this white paper created by James Autio



BIONX SU
PERMODEL® 2 Executive Overview
BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 executes an entirely new approach to micronutrition: apply an open-source strategy to address your whole body's needs to experience your potential no matter what your walk of life. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 integrates the best the world has to offer into one bottle—only the highest quality nutrients on the planet from each respective nutrient class qualify to make the BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 roster.  In the world today, what are the most researched nutrients to optimize the structure and function of your cardiovascular, neurological, connective tissue and vision systems? What are the most efficacious nutrients to: maximize adaptation to stress; manage connective tissue repair and joint stiffness; enhance the beauty and integrity of skin, hair and nails; sustain intense mental focus under pressure; underwrite anti-aging objectives; produce maximal aerobic power; augment learning capacity and motor control; increase strength and extend endurance? If you envision the qualities, constituents and properties defining the world's preeminent nutritional supplement, what would they be and mean? BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 answers these questions and a lot more.

Tired of cobbling together a cupboard full of supplements from multiple sources and companies? BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is a fully-comprehensive micronutritional platform that has been evolving in concert with nutrient technological advances for over 20 years. This platform eliminates the guess work, logistics, hazards of sub-standard quality control, risks of manufacturing shortcomings, nutritional overlap, and expense of your searching the bewildering marketplace for pieces to the puzzle. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is a global collection of vitamins, chelated minerals, trace minerals, standardized botanical extracts, phytonutrients, essential fatty acids, connective tissue constituents, multiple classes of antioxidant compounds, conditionally-essential nutrients, nutraceuticals, and active, probiotic cultures that cost-effectively replaces all micronutritional supplements with a single product elegantly packaged in tablet form from a world-class manufacturer. 

The Nutrient Selection Strategy and Technical Foundation
The BIONX® open-source, nutrient selection process started in 1990. As new nutrient technology becomes available, it enters the review process queue for the next product release cycle. Beyond its reductionist value as an isolated nutrient, each nutrient is examined for possible synergies in relationship to other BIONX® nutrients and metabolic intermediaries in the cellular metabolic network and opportunities to impact signalling pathways.The larger question posed is: given the metabolic and signalling networks and their potential for amplification, how can this nutrient—and at what concentration—enhance performance and tolerance to stress at the organism level?

Approach to Design and Manufacturing
The design process uses the latest selection roster and updated BIONX® performance feedback as inputs to fine-tune an ultimate, cost-no-object supermodel called Blue Sky Platform; the supermodel is divided into functional sub-systems that, in composite, address the adaptive requirements of the human organism and is updated based upon new information. Then, with cost, safety, and manufacturing constraints applied to the cost-no-object supermodel, a final engineering specification is created with the commercial product designed to yield maximum performance capability per client dollar invested. Blue Sky Platform is founded on systems engineering principles drawing from the following disciplines: biochemistry, exercise physiology, physiology of the deadly encounter, environmental physiology, systems biology, anti-aging research, Cabejian epigenetics, bioinformatics, biosemioticsopen-system thermodynamics, neuroscience, Taleb risk analysis, cybernetics, Corning synergism hypothesis, and network theory. The early foundation for these principles and for Blue Sky Platform emerged from the 1990-2000 development of An Operating System for the Human Organism and its Six Laws of Biological Preservation.
 
BIONX®-1 was released in 1995 and the most current version, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2.2, is in the seventh generation of the BIONX® evolutionary process. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is manufactured by a laboratory that is GMP Registered by NSF International. BIONX® products and their antecedents over the last 24 years have been subjected to the most extreme, real-world, life-threatening, environmental, metabolic, and system-level stress profiles imaginable for the human organism but this is the precise intersection of the world's most powerful micronutritional product with the world's most discriminating clients. BIONX® (from bionics), is "a science concerned with the application of data about the functioning of biological systems to the solution of engineering problems." The BIONX® logo is Hermes, a Greek Olympian god that is the carrier of messages and protector of athletes and combatants. He wields a medical staff called the caduceus which has two snakes, one black and one red. The red snake represents red zone operators, people that push beyond their limits in their quest for performance transcendent of human form. The black snake represents the fallen; clients that have died in military combat, in expeditions facing the merciless forces of Nature, or, eventually, those in extreme or violent athletic endeavors. If your quest is to experience your potential, be it from K2 to Mach 2, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the only time-tested, competition proven vehicle to take you to the redline of your performance envelope.


Performance Capabilities

(1) comprehensive management of connective tissue repair/joint stiffness issues (decreased recovery time given the trauma of training and competition and enhanced joint flexibility);
(2) increased maximal strength (1-RM) and strength-endurance (maximal power output for less than 12 seconds under load);
(3) increased maximal aerobic power (VO2 max and/or anaerobic threshold conditions);
(4) increased torque across the entire energy demand spectrum from maximal lipid power to 1-RM;   
(5) accelerated resynthesis of creatine phosphate (greater strength for at-limit efforts under conditions of a variable-time interval demand);
(6) glycogen-sparing effects (delayed fatigue observable in the late stages of competitions, expeditions, or missions);
(7) comprehensive support for neurological preservation, stress management, and cognition amplification;
(8) micronutritional support for preserving visual acuity, motion and depth perception (optics and visual computation);
(9) comprehensive support of skin, hair, and nails (see brochure on "Beauty" applications); and
(10) discovery and emergence of latent human potential due to micronutritional deficiencies or metabolic bottlenecks (increase of metabolic bandwidth and/or decrease in effective metabolic diameter).
 
With sparing reliance on the obsolete micronutritional paradigm from circa 1945, a new approach based on system engineering principles was born in 1990 with the goal of creating a constantly evolving platform, not a "formula." Given known adaptive response mechanisms to stress and influences to coordinate homeodynamics, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2.2 provides the most robust and versatile micronutritional strategy available for maximizing adaptive yield to stress while enhancing the probability to survive under hostile conditions to our biology. Full-scale biological response is only possible if all metabolic critical paths and their inherent bottle necks are satisfactorily remedied. Accomplishing this, the human performance envelope is extended and more potential is realized.
Coordinating homeodynamics, maximizing aerobic power, increasing strength and torque, creating glycogen-sparing effects, enhancing cardiovascular function, and providing comprehensive support for neurological function, vision and connective tissue repair and maintenance are mission-critical objectives for elite performance in athletic endeavors and military special forces. Not surprisingly, the entire nutrient roster is recruited for cognition-intensive professions as well. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2—functioning as a full-spectrum, biological performance amplifier—is the only product available in the world with these capabilities. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 elegantly integrates these performance deliverables in a single product in tablet form. 



BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 specification



    
Interactive Index of BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 Applications

Micronutritional and Nutraceutical Support for Baseball's Achilles' Heel: Connective Tissue Vulnerability

Accelerated Healing in the Pursuit of the 24-Hour Pull-Up World Record

The Role of Augmented Strength and Power in Improving Control for Baseball and Golf:
Micronutrition's Role in the Integration of the Muscular and Nervous Systems


The Role of Sensory Input on Control for Golf and Baseball: Micronutritional Support of Vision

Micronutritional Applications for Cognition-Intensive Professions: 
Neurological Preservation, Cognitive Flexibility and Bandwidth, Mental Endurance
and Executive Decision Making Under Hostile Conditions


Harvesting Breakthrough Talent:
A New Tool for Discovering Potential Talent in Farm League and Player Development Programs


Aerobic Power Enhancement and its Potential Impact on the NFL

Quality Control, Manufacturing, and Engineering

References


Micronutritional and Nutraceutical Support for Baseball's Achilles' Heel: Connective Tissue Vulnerability
In the last three years, three studies [24, 25, 26] have been published regarding major league baseball (MLB) injury prevalence including one comprehensive epidemiological seven-year study of all MLB injuries for fielders and pitchers [24]. To no one's surprise, pitchers suffered predominately upper extremity injuries and fielders lower body injuries. Between 2002 and 2007, 27% of pitchers were injured following a season in which they pitched [25]. Examining radiographic data for pitchers, evidence of findings for the acromioclavicular joint in the shoulder and radial head osteophytes and radioulnar joint in the elbow increased in direct proportion to inning
s pitched but were not predictive of time spent on the MLB disabled list [27]. MLB pitchers cumulatively develop degenerative changes to connective tissue in both their shoulder and elbow anatomies due to repetitive use. To a lesser degree, damage accrues to lower body anatomical structures in fielders (as well as all athletes engaged in chronic training and competition involving high force profiles).

To manage connective tissue wear and tear, MLB players engage in off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning programs including various forms of resistance training, flexibility/mobility training, and physical therapy. Playing baseball at the professional level imposes stress profiles (intensity, frequency and specificity of transient force spikes targeted on vulnerable anatomical structures) that the human anatomy is evolutionarily unfit to accommodate: training to become stronger nonlinearly increases forces applied to anatomical structures. Statistically, MLB injury rates have increased 37% between 2005 and 2008 and from 2002 through the 2008 season an average of 438.9 players per year were placed on the disabled list [24]. In order to adapt to stress at the highest feasible efficiency, all known metabolic bottlenecks in the tissue repair process (i.e. "healing") need to be identified and then minimized. To achieve this, a broad repertoire of micronutritional and nutraceutical components to optimize adaptive response (i.e. to not only heal but to supercompensate to the ravages of repetitive, unabated stressors) that go beyond essential nutrients are required. The optimal micronutritional solution to address this vulnerability is a multifactorial, systems biology approach composed of the following four-pronged strategy: (1) prevention and damage control; (2) management of anti-inflammatory processes; (3) synthesis of connective tissue; and (4) enhanced joint flexibility and mobility.

Reducing down-time due to injury and managing joint stiffness is in the best interest of both baseball teams and its players. Over the course of a baseball player's career, ideally beginning years prior to MLB play, there is no better investment than providing a global collection of state-of-the-art forms of all the mission-critical building blockers in clinically-determined dosages to address all aspects demanded to support connective tissue function, integrity, and reliability. Baseball is a game defined by small margins. The team-performance impact of even modest enhancement to tissue damage prevention and accelerated connective tissue repair and synthesis are powerfully leveraged: imagine if during a full 162 game season there is a mere 2% reduction in player-game count lost to injury? How about 5% or more? It is often overlooked that nutrition works synergistically with physical therapy in terms of healing response. If there are metabolic bottlenecks in the biochemical pathways responsible for healing, then the efficacy of physical therapy is hampered and, consequently, player down-time is extended. To the player, the economic impact of extended career longevity and the potential opportunity to improve individual performance statistics due to decreased injury down-time are paramount. In a game where inches and milliseconds are the difference between winning and losing, all avenues of safe and legal performance enhancement need to be explored, integrated, and evolved. Micronutritional support at the highest level is a vital dimension of sustaining performance at the limits of the human performance envelope and the stresses of MLB play exceed the limits of human connective tissue mechanical properties.

Strategy and Micronutritional Components for Connective Tissue Repair and Maintenance: A Multifactorial, Systems Biology Approach
1. Prevention and Damage Control
Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme, blocks the early cascade of inflammatory events to reduce recovery time from the trauma of training and competition. This inhibition of pro-inflammatory processes reduces inflammatory symptoms like heat, swelling, and loss of joint mobility [21]. Grape seed extract (Activin®) is rich in powerful plant-based antioxidants called oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes or (OPCs). ActiVin®, unlike other grape seed extracts, eliminates the use of harsh chemicals using a patented process called ActiPure®, an environmentally friendly, natural water process that extracts proanthocyanidins from grape seeds. OPCs have a wide range of effects including an ability to increase intracellular levels of vitamin C, decrease capillary fragility, scavenge free radicals, and inhibit breakdown of collagen [22]. OPCs play an important supporting role in the arrest of morning stiffness. The antioxidant activity of OPCs is 50 times greater than vitamin E and 20 times greater than vitamin C. Grape seed extract primarily serves in an anti-catabolic capacity (reduces the breakdown of connective tissue structure) in BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2. The goal of the prevention strategy is to amplify the control and reliability of the management of inflammation and to reduce the demand for the synthesis of new connective tissue structures. The execution of all four phases of the strategy results in accelerated recovery and an improvement in adaptive yield (the purpose of training is super compensation, not just to get back to "square one") from training stress.

2. Management of Inflammatory Processes

Curcumin and Boswellia serrata are the two most efficacious, anti-inflammatory botanicals and BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 offers both at therapeutic levels in their much more potent second-generation nutraceutical forms as opposed to just the unmodified standardized extracts. Meriva® curcumin phytosome is a patented form of the botanical curcumin that demonstrates a 29-fold increase in absorption and a superior plasma curcuminoid profile compared to conventional curcuminoid preparations. Boswellia serrata (5-Loxin®) is an Ayurvedic botanical possessing very powerful anti-inflammatory actions and is a first tier tool for the management of morning stiffness. 5-Loxin® concentrates the most powerful Boswellia compound, acetyl-11-keto-beta boswellic acid, or AKBA. The researchers created a method using state-of-the-art manufacturing practices to produce a Boswellia extract at a concentration of 30% AKBA, ten times more concentrated than ordinary Boswellia extracts. In clinical research, a 250 mg daily dose of 5-Loxin® was significantly better than a 100 mg dose for joint stiffness and functional ability parameters. Many different signal molecules that influence the behavior of signal networks at the cellular level mediate inflammatory processes. Meriva® and 5-Loxin® when used in combination address inflammatory cascades more comprehensively and robustly than either alone.

3. Synthesis of Connective Tissue: Structural and Metabolic Dimensions

Shark Cartilage contains glucosamine, chondroitin, trace minerals, anti-inflammatory compounds, immune support factors and other protein compounds required for connective tissue repair and maintenance. OptiMSM® is a source of biologically-available sulfur, a critical mineral that is incorporated into connective tissue, cell membranes, insulin, coenzyme A, hemoglobin and muscle proteins. Manganese (from manganese ascorbate) is a key trace mineral that is mandatory for connective tissue synthesis [23]. Shark cartilage, OptiMSM®, and manganese serve in a connective tissue, building-block capacity in BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2. In addition to structural elements, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 also offers a complete array of nutrients for amplifying the metabolic (i.e. energetic) aspects of connective tissue synthesis. The process of building and maintaining any biological structure is not magic; energy is consumed to synthesize structures and the same nutrients that affect metabolism in muscle tissue and neurons also affect the metabolic chain in energy consumption for building connective tissue structure (see Muscle Metabolism Modification: Amplify the Utilization of Available Oxygen Supply). In this capacity, all bottlenecks are addressed for structural building blocks ("parts") and energy production ("labor"), just like a real-world car factory.

4. Enhanced Joint Flexibility and Mobility

InterHealth UC-II® is a new nutraceutical composed of undenatured type-2 collagen. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical research has shown that 40 mg of UC-II®, composed of 25% undenatured type-2 collagen, significantly improved joint flexibility in 90 days and may improve joint function, mobility, and tolerance to sport-specific stress. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 at a dosage of 12 tablets per day delivers 40 mg of UC-II®.

Bioavailability Amplifier to All Micronutritional Components
Black Pepper (Bioperine®) is an extract from the fruit of black pepper that increases the blood levels of nearly all of the nutrient classes. For example, a 5 mg dose of Bioperine® increases the blood level of CoQ10 by 31.8%, vitamin C by 52.3%, selenium by 42.6% and beta-carotene by 61.2%. Return to the Index


Accelerated Healing in the Pursuit of the 24-Hour Pull-Up World Record (Return to Harvesting Breakthrough Talent)

David Goggins, The Fittest Real Man in America by Outside magazine, broke the Guinness 24-hour pull-up world record with 4030 repetitions on his third assault of the record on January 20, 2013. His first attempt was on September 27, 2012 on the Today Show. (interview with Matt Lauer, the rules for the record, and David starting his attempt in the New York City NBC studio). He completed 2588 pull-ups in 5.5 hours but had to retire due to a partially torn muscle in his forearm.

The second attempt was in Nashville, Tennessee on November 27, 2012 where he completed 3207 reps in 12 hours before retiring after suffering third-degree burns from the shear and frictional forces on his hands from the bar (pictures and story).

The third attempt was also in Nashville where in 17 hours he completed 4030 repetitions, eclipsing the old mark of 4021. The featured video shows the first 15 minutes of the record attempt. Throughout the course of his training David, 38 years old, 6 feet 2 inches tall and 200 pounds (91 kg.) was using BIONX SUPERMODEL 2.0 at a dose level of 20 tablets daily (1 tablet per 10 lbs. of bodyweight). The product greatly enhanced his ability to recover from the severe stresses of training and to accelerate healing from the injuries. His ability to recover from his injuries and regain such a high-level of conditioning in such a short period (61 days between attempts one and two and 54 days between attempts two and three) is quite remarkable. In major league sports such as MLB, NHL, and PGA/ LPGA, accelerating the rate of healing of injured players obviously lends formidable competitive advantage to a franchise.

The video shows the process of performing 5 rapid repetitions which uses the CP-ATP energy system (alactic anaerobic) and then a short recovery cycle similar to between plays in the NFL. During the recovery cycle there is an accelerated resynthesis of creatine phosphate aerobically. This is discussed in Aerobic Power Enhancement and its Potential Impact on the NFL. Unlike football’s approximately 30-40 plays/game per player, this endured for 17 hours (806 sets of 5) until he broke the record with 7 hours to spare. Under normal conditions, creatine phosphate resynthesis and can take up to 50-60 seconds to recover just to 50% of baseline [2, 3]. David averaged less than 70 seconds
recovery between sets for 806 sets, accounting for breaks.
Return to the Index


The Role of Augmented Strength and Power* in Improving Control** for Baseball and Golf: Micronutrition's Role in the Integration of the Muscular and Nervous Systems
The invasion of anabolic steroids and their impact on baseball in the last 20 years has been breathtakingly obvious. The evidence of increasing strength by pharmaceutical means and its influence on performance in sports requiring control—not strength per se—is unassailable. Control was enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids, not just strength and power. A similar effect would have been witnessed in golf if there had not been intervention of drug testing standards. 

How Can Strength Improve Control?

Golf is not perceived as a "strength sport" but physiologically the drive off the tee, the long approach shot, and striking the ball out of a trap require extraordinary power and precise control: it is the simultaneous combination of high power and precise control that is very difficult to achieve. Why? If you must utilize a dominant share of the neurological motor units available to perform a movement, such as striking a golf ball at a very inefficient angle with a terrible ball lie, then you compromise control; accuracy is compromised. The ball will not go where you intend (intentions = your brain (central nervous system) deciding on a particular outcome and then expressing the intension via your body's motor control: sense input (optics + visual cortex signal processing + proprioception) => brain (cerebrum) => cerebellum => efferent nerve pathways => muscle recruitment + inter-muscular coordination). So where does pure force development independent of time (i.e. "strength") come in? If you are stronger, with stronger being defined as an increase in contractile muscle force at the single motor unit recruitment level, than you will require less of your absolute maximal strength to perform a given motor task at the organism level.  Neurologically, you are recruiting a smaller number of motor units from the available motor pool to perform a given task. The smaller this percentage is, the more reliable (i.e. more "control") your movement and outcome will be. This is dictated by the size principle of muscle recruitment and its relationship to motor noise: your nervous system recruits from smaller to larger motor units (size is measured by the number of muscle fibers under control by a single efferent motor nerve) based upon demand which also directly corresponds to the type of muscle recruited: slow twitch (low force production) to fast twitch (high force production). Smaller motor units are superior for fine motor control (greater dexterity means quintessential control, especially noted in hand movements) and larger motor units for gross motor movement but for swinging a bat or driver, slow twitch can be considered irrelevant because they contribute negligible power in millisecond time frames (cats can bypass slow twitch populations entirely but humans cannot!). The nervous system (the control element) generates an electrical signal that fires and coordinates the muscles (the power elements) and has a signal-to-noise ratio. A high signal-to-noise ratio has better motor control than a low one. For example, Parkinson's disease has the debilitating effect of shakiness because the nerve signal is very noisy. In epilepsy, the entire body shakes uncontrollably and the noise is extreme spikes relative to the signal. On the other hand, a world-class pianist playing softly has a very high signal-to-noise ratio. The variance of motor noise increases as a function of motor input which means that the more muscle mass involved to a produce a given motor pattern—like hitting a fast ball, throwing a curve ball, or teeing off—the lower the signal-to-noise ratio and, consequently, control suffers. 

An important consideration is the object being manipulated, such as a bat, golf club or hockey stick, for two important reasons: (1) the physics of the moment of inertia and (2) the neurobiology of cerebellar/motor cortex neuronal plasticity. In baseball and golf you are concerned with objects in rotation operating at both high angular accelerations and terminal velocities ("head speed") with centers of mass far from the axis of rotation. In rotational systems as opposed to linear systems (like pushing a car), the moment of inertia substitutes for mass. Your body's ability to overcome the moment of inertia and to produce motion of a bat or driver is equal to the distance from the axis of rotation (let's say your hands but it is more complicated than that) to the center of mass of the bat squared multiplied by the mass of the bat [MI = (L^2)*M]. The longer the center of mass is from the axis of rotation the more muscular force you need to apply. Because the distance is squared not merely multiplied by the mass, the amount of power and strength required is quite substantial to perform at the elite level. Thus when you "choke up" on a bat you decrease the moment of inertia because you decrease the squared factor. When you choose a 3-wood instead of a driver you decrease the moment of inertia because you decrease both the squared factor and the mass factor. A shorter or lighter tennis racquet, same thing. You do sacrifice range (how far the ball will go relative to a driver but you put the ball in the center of the fairway, not in the rough) but you gain control because the nervous system is less noisy due to a decreased motor input and this is because the motor input requires fewer motor units from your motor unit pool. Additionally, these are the most trained motor units because they are always recruited first until fatigue enters into the equation. The effect of physical and mental fatigue, endurance training and micronutrition on motor control is beyond the scope of this white paper but understand that fatigue has a profound influence on golf performance in the fourth round of a tournament including the performance erosion of putting.

Neurological Plasticity: The Assimilation of Tools and the Consolidation of Motor Patterns by the Nervous System as an Adaptive Response to Repetitive Practice
In neurobiology we have learned that the premotor cortex area (anatomy) modifies neural circuits to accommodate for tools that we use frequently, such as a bat, club, pencil, scalpel or hammer, so that from the brain's perspective the tool is an extension of the hand: there is no difference between your fingers and the tool, they become one with you at a deep unconscious level. Over time, given sufficient and efficient motor learning ("practice") the actual motor patterns become automatic and are consolidated at progressively lower, unconscious levels until they become reflexive in what are called motocepts[28]. This is an example of neural plasticity which is ubiquitous in the nervous system: the idea that the nervous system's connectivity is set in concrete after a certain age is quite incorrect. To visualize the significance of this, when Tiger Woods is going to tee off, there are brain circuits in his premotor cortex that are mapped for the club and the club head no differently than circuits for his hands; just like you know where your fingers and toes are in a pitch black room, his body map "knows" where the club head is. The motor patterns and proprioceptive inputs to strike the ball and the neuromuscular relationships of his body to the club head are wired within his nervous system on a deep, unconscious level. In the words of Brazilian neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis in Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines—and How It Will Change Our Lives[30]:

This is not the case for a novice golfer, however, who has to consciously think about his movement. The problem with "thinking about" what you are doing is that your perception is over 100 ms (can be much more) behind reality due to the time required for the extra neural computations and decision making in the prefrontal cortex (instead of direct communication from sensory input (visual cortex) to motor output (motor cortex/cerebellum) bypassing "thinking" (prefrontal cortex)) so that when you actually execute motor behavior it is late, your timing is off and 100 ms equates to miss hitting tennis, golf, and baseballs—a big reason for choking. In the West it is called "paralysis via analysis."In the East it is "too many minds." You want no mind, no thought; just pure flow. But you cannot achieve flow at the elite level without the buildout of motor control neural circuits. It is the neurobiology that allows for the body to gain freedom from the prison of the limited conscious mind thus opening up access to reliable performance at the elite level.

Measuring Control
In the military, they use a term called circular error probability, or CEP. It is used for missile accuracy of warheads and artillery. A 155 mm howitzer can reliably hit a truck-sized target from a range of 15 miles which yields a CEP of 5 meters. Golf's physics are the same. Say you are at a range of 200 yards from the hole and there are nasty sand traps within 10 yards of the hole all the way around the green. If you have a CEP of 10 yards striking from a range of 200 yards it means your ball will land on the green half the time and the other half is in the traps (...or worse!). By increasing your strength of the recruited muscles and practicing your stroke mechanics—and nothing else—you will improve your CEP under most conditions in golf, which means more balls landing on the green or closer to the hole (say you improve to a CEP of 7 yards from 200 yards out), or better bat control in baseball, or fewer unforced errors in tennis, or more accurate pitching or closer to the right corner of the net in hockey, water polo or soccer. This does not mean a Gold medalist in Olympic weight lifting would be the most accurate golfer hitting off the tee; it means that people that currently golf and then become significantly stronger will be more accurate with the same range or have greater range with the same accuracy. But it is not the direct improvement of strength causing the reduced CEP; it is the improvement in strength reserve that modifies the neural dynamics and the attendant reduction in motor noise (i.e. increased signal-to-noise) that does—you re-wire yourself. The evolutionary biology behind this re-wiring (adaptive response) is to improve energy economy via optimization. 

Time for a thought experiment. Imagine you were magically ten-times stronger (not 30% stronger, but 1000% stronger) with the same body dimensions and you practiced your stroke mechanics for 90 days. You could swing the biggest driver effortlessly with high repeatability and with radical power. How do you think your control would be? Your approach shot to the green on a long par 5 after teeing off would be a piece of cake! Increasing strength also has another crucial benefit: an increase in your palette of available options emerges as you integrate and apply basic force production via neural plasticity to the control of tools you were unable to master before due to a strength deficit. Now, with a broadened repertoire of tool use, you can perform at the next level of play, whereas before, inadequate strength held you back. For example, think of the different CEPs for driving off the tee with a driver versus using a 3-wood: why do elite golfers with incredible range often use a 3-wood whereas those with inadequate range must use the driver? Why do PGA pros hit from the pro's tees, men from the men's tees and women from the women's tees? All else being equal, there is a continuum that is regulated by maximal muscular contractile force and its relationship to the nervous system that regulates it: one important factor of control is a by-product of maximal strength at sub-maximal levels of demand effort (strength reserve), but it is not the only factor. Women golfers have much to gain by getting stronger and in the last 10 years women (and men) have introduced training methods to increase functional strength for improving performance in golf. The game has changed; PGA courses are longer to accommodate for increased range with control and club geometries are regulated. On the PGA tour, the fitness and physical conditioning trailers follow them where ever they go. Golf is no different than other sports: if you are stronger you have greater control and more reliable stroke mechanics. Strength matters because of its relationship to control; strength should no longer be thought of in stereotypical contexts like lifting heavy weights, having big muscles, or being "muscle bound."Motor control is a composite quality that is emergent from the integration of muscle and nervous system function and is an adaptive response to stress ("training") largely orchestrated by the brain. Control in the cybernetic sense being used here (like in robotics and control systems theory) and motor control (biology) are not synonymous but they overlap and both matter greatly in sports performance and most likely are new concepts to traditionally-trained experts in exercise physiology, physical therapy, strength coaches and similar disciplines. In a nutshell, the cybernetic brain is not representational but performative and the preeminent role of the brain in performance is adaptation: the brain is an organ for adaptation to the unknown, not a mere repository of static data and knowledge[29].

The Relationship Between the Muscular and Nervous Systems in Adaptive Response of Motor Control
Increasing contractile muscle fiber force at the single, motor unit level contributes to increasing control at the organism level. But what this really means is that making a single muscle fiber contract at a greater force does not in itself grant greater task accuracy (such as a more accurate drive off the tee); it is the co-adaptation with the nervous system that does. Motor control of a complex movement pattern such as pitching a baseball or making a 180 yard approach shot involves the integration of your entire body's neuromuscular system. Feedback and feedforward within the nervous system is used in a learning process to improve control from the motor cortex/cerebellum to efferent nerve pathways to neural circuits deciding on what muscle motor units to recruit to feedback from your senses and proprioceptors back through afferent nerve pathways that lead back to the brain. Force production limitations are an input to and influence control in this complex network. These ideas, concepts, and models lie at the intersection of cybernetics and systems biology and obviously affect organismic behavior at the margin of the human performance envelope all the way to the limits of survivability. Your body has no idea what golf or baseball are but it does know stress and adaptation to stress, and that leads directly to nutrition and recovery. 

The Role of Micronutrition in Enhancing Control
Most sports require high bursts of power within limited ranges of any specific joint movement over very short time spans as opposed to absolute strength which is force development independent of time. For example, powerlifting (i.e. bench press, squat and deadlift) is actually a misnomer: power lifting defines strength—not power—in its purest sense: if it takes 1 second or 10 seconds to squat 500 pounds you squatted 500 pounds of force in both instances but the power outputs vary 10-fold. The production of high power requires rapid force development: the ball is on the club head or racquet face very briefly and your precise control of the angle of attack matters greatly. Power is enhanced by: (1) increasing the capacity of the CP-ATP alactic energy system (strength training+ micronutrition for muscle adaptations); (2) improving neurological recruitment so that more motor units are recruited in parallel (strength training + micronutrition for neural adaptations including plasticity); (3) more efficient inter-muscular coordination (practice increases task accuracy via neural coordination adaptations and reduces energy consumption + micronutrition for plasticity enhancement); (4) improving biomechanics ("technique"); and (5) enhanced flexibility and range of motion (physical therapy/stretching reduces internal resistance + micronutrition for connective tissue support particularly InterHealth UC-II®)BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 plays a role in 4 of the 5 approaches to power enhancement. If you change muscle properties to increase contractile force, then through practice of your sport the nervous system will co-adapt with one adaptation being improved task accuracy (control): control is derivative of strength and power and is what is valued—not strength per se. The micronutritional approach to enhancing strength and explosive power begins with creatine monohydrate ("creatine"): creatine is a compound proven to enhance maximal strength and increase the capacity of the CP-ATP system [factor (1) above]. Once the muscle tissue compartment is saturated by the ingestion of sufficient creatine (via loading dose protocol or extended maintenance dose of 1,500 - 5,000 mg/day), the muscle tissue will sustain tissue saturation. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 at a dosage of 6 tablets per day delivers 1,500 mg of pharmaceutical-grade creatine monohydrate thus eliminating the need for creatine powder or drinks. 

Is there a metabolic approach to improving motocept formation, coordination, and control? Given this context, the role of micronutrition is to increase the adaptive yield (i.e. the degree of benefit or supercompensation achieved during recovery from stress) from stress, which in this circumstance is caused by training and competition. Why would anyone think that muscle cell (skeletal and cardiac) metabolism can be manipulated but nerve cell metabolism cannot? It takes energy and nutritional building blocks within neuron cell bodies, axons and dendrites and the adjacent glia cells (support cells for neurons in the brain) to execute these adaptations: these processes are not magic and are subject to micronutritional constraints no different than any other tissue type. If any nutrient is missing or in insufficient concentration, the opportunity to maximize adaptive yield is lost. As you improve and approach your genetic ceiling the margin for error in all phases—training, recovery, and nutrition—drops dramatically. The better you get, the harder it is to get better: the rate of improvement declines due to decreasing marginal returns coupled to the increased overhead cost of merely maintaining a high performance level and the concomitant increased risk of injury from higher training intensity and duration. A single, undetected micronutritional error can keep you parked on a plateau indefinitely and you will never know why or what. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the only micronutritional platform in the world for addressing all micronutritional shortcomings at the demand level at the limits of the human performance envelope.

The development of BIONX® from the earliest stages always emphasized enhancement of brain energy metabolism and support for plasticity (mapping plasticity and dendritic/synaptic plasticity) but in the mid-1990s the nutritional technology to support these functions was meager and the peer-reviewed research was cursory. This is no longer the case: nutraceuticals like Meriva®, acetyl-L-carnitine, creatine monohydrate, sodium-R-lipoate, and coenzyme Q10; the essential fatty acids DHA and EPA; along with all the nutrients that enhance aerobic glycolysis in skeletal muscle cells (see Muscle Metabolism Modification: Amplify the Utilization of Available Oxygen Supply) apply with commensurate efficacy because neuronal metabolism is the same as aerobic glycolysis (glucose used as fuel in the presence of adequate oxygen) in muscle cells. Just for example, there are currently 352 peer-reviewed studies on curcumin and brain function and recall from the section on connective tissue function above, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 offers a much more potent (a 29-fold increase in absorption) second-generation nutraceutical form as opposed to just the unmodified standardized extracts used in these studies. Additionally, for acetyl-L-carnitine, reference to 184 papers in regards to brain function; a paper on curcumin, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity; and a paper on creatine and brain performance (not muscle performance). For a more in-depth exploration of brain energy metabolism, neurological plasticity, and preservation of cognitive assets, please review BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 and Neurological Performance and The Ability of Nutrients to Promote Brain Plasticity and Cognitive Health.

Footnotes to above section
* "Power" in this section refers to anaerobically-produced power in watts using the CP-ATP energy system in under 12 seconds under load (the outer margin of the CP-ATP system) but predominately refers to power produced in under 500 ms. "Strength" is defined as the ability to apply force independent of time at the organism-level and the amount of contractile force developed by a single motor unit at the muscle-nerve level.

** "Control" in the cybernetic sense is synonymous with task accuracy and is a measure of precision or reliable repeatability: the statistical difference between your intention and outcome—did you throw a strike or was it just outside the strike zone? The smaller the variance, the better the control. A CEP with a smaller radius at a given range is an improvement in control: can you hit 10 approach shots from the same spot under windless conditions less than 7 feet from the pin? Can you pitch a fastball at 100 MPH 10 times in a row within a 6 inch radius? The movie Moneyball showcases the outcome of the use of sterile, agnostic, quantitative, statistical methods on baseball player performance in the determination of specific, winning specifications or quantifiable traits, a formula for winning. The essence of this formula, if viewed through a biological lens—in lieu of a reductionist, statistical one—is largely defined by control and control's determinants such as strength, power, and visual acuity. A superior baseball player has better control of his body, has better control catching and throwing the ball, and has better bat control. Because of control, the superior baseball player has better stats: stats are a means of measuring control but stats are not a means of increasing control. Control is the single most important factor in what a team pays for in a player, so if you want stats you need control but to increase control you must understand the biology of motor control and what influences its adaptive response to training stress. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the Rosetta stone to the control puzzle. Return to the Index


The Role of Sensory Input on Control for Golf and Baseball: Micronutritional Support of Vision
As explained above, strength reserve is an input to motor control and task accuracy for golf and baseball. In some professions, like fighter pilots, race car drivers, quarterbacks and baseball players, vision matters greatly in the quality of decision making from cognition to motor commands. Physiologically, vision is composed of two sub-systems: the two eyes (optics) and the visual cortex (vision computation) that presents what you see based on electrical impulses traveling from the eyes' optic nerves to the visual cortex. Vision signal processing is conducted in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. There are no peer-reviewed studies of micronutrition's impact on the brain's role in vision like there are for cognition and other brain functions, but the cell-level metabolism and general features of neural circuit architecture are identical to other brain regions: its signals just have different interpretative values. Although how we perceive what is "out there" is not fully understood, we do know that vision signal processing (i.e. computational algorithms) are formidable. It is beyond the scope of this white paper to investigate vision theory in depth, but a couple of known problems will infer the gravity of the task. The eyes only optically provide as input 2D patterns of changing light intensity: the 3D image you see is constructed by the visual cortex. The detection of motion and depth perception are also constructed in the visual cortex. Instead of a blurred, fuzzy image of a baseball as input, a distinct, sharp edge with higher resolution will improve pattern recognition and prediction of its trajectory in signal processing in the visual cortex and the cerebellum along with performance of this entire sensorimotor feedback loop. The magic of how the bat meets the ball begins here, long before the batter twitches a muscle in his extremities. Decision making is not just in the prefrontal cortex; it is also motor control in the cerebellum and peripheral nervous system—and micronutrition affects all of it. It is obvious in regards to vision performance that improving the quality of the signal (optics) and improving neuronal energetics and housekeeping of neurons is mission critical especially considering the voracious appetite of brain energy metabolism (20% of whole body oxygen consumption at rest) and its free radical production and consequent damage to intracellular structure as a direct result of this metabolic rate.
 
As for optics/eye function, one nutrient does impact performance but the performance is not about producing some form of "super vision" but, instead, is about preservation or restoration of optimal eye function. The most important nutrient for maintaining eye function is lutein, a specific type of carotenoid in the xanthophyll class found in greatest concentration in spinach, kale, and broccoli but is also found in eggs and corn (not to be confused with the common carotenoid beta-carotene which is provitamin A). In the US, the daily intake is 1 to 2 mg/day. Unfortunately, lutein is not that well absorbed, is not synthesized from precursors, and this is compounded by the general population's woeful dietary intake of lutein-bearing plants. So, over time, lutein, which is a major component of the macula lutea and is also deposited on the eye's lens, declines in concentration (the concentration of lutein in the macula is called the macular pigment optical density (MPOD)) sufficiently to degrade vision performance in the following properties: photostress glare recovery, contrast sensitivity, and visual acuity. Lutein also functions to filter harmful short-wavelength of visible blue light and to stabilize membrane integrity.

Lutein is not a vitamin and is therefore not a consideration for nutritional supplements designed to only encompass essential vitamins and minerals; it has fallen through the cracks and should be classified as an essential vitamin. You would go blind in its absence. The recommended level of lutein to restore MPOD is 10 mg/day. The best source of lutein in the industry is FloraGLO® lutein derived from marigold flowers. Additionally, FloraGLO® lutein is bound in a starch matrix which delivers superior bioavailability. For every major league baseball player, this should be considered a mandatory insurance policy due to the severe consequences imposed by sub-optimal vision. For serious golfers, INDYCAR and NASCAR drivers, pilots and NFL quarterbacks, this is also mission-critical.

Vision most assuredly is an input greatly affecting control in baseball because of the millisecond time frame for the visual cortex to process visual signals from a baseball traveling at 100 MPH and then transmit motor signals originating in the motor cortex and cerebellum coordinating the muscles throughout the kinetic chain that produce the precise movement and timing of the bat in relation to the swerving ball. This is one of the most amazing physiological feats in all of sports if witnessed at the tissue-level and if visual input is not ultra sharp, performance catastrophically suffers. Time for a thought experiment. Imagine if a baseball player had the visual acuity of an eagle which is estimated to be 20/5. He would be able to see an ant on the ground from the top of a 10 story building. He could read the pitcher's body language, see how the ball is grasped, make out the red thread patterns clearly, and notice every detail of his facial expression. Armed with these details plus the game situation, the hitter possesses all the visual cues required for pattern recognition memory to predict both the pitch and its likely target—all automatically and instantly without conscious thought. The signal going from his visual cortex to the cerebellum would be different than that of someone with even extraordinary human vision such as 20/10: the motor commands for inter-muscular coordination would be better for hitting the ball because his perception of what the pitcher is doing and what the ball is actually doing in-flight is far more accurate in relation to reality: the signal-to-noise ratio is greater. Reducing noise in the entire feedback loop from visual signal to cerebellar motor commands to recruitment of muscle motor units with precise, synchronized timing is vital. Yes, the optical noise from poor visual acuity (blurriness) is different than motor noise (electrical waveform) but noise is noise because any noise affects the when and where of the bat striking the ball. The increased informational quality for visual signal processing obviously correlates to enhanced pattern recognition skill and control—and they spell on-base percentage. Doing anything possible to preserve or restore vision is mission-critical to every baseball player. Its importance to golf is also important: vision is a major input to cerebellar motor commands in golf, as well. Fighter pilots are rejected due to even minor visual inadequacies. No, you won't see like an eagle but you will see at your performance ceiling because BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 delivers the state-of-the-art in micronutritional support for the entire visuomotor control system and perceptual/pattern recognition system, not just for the optical component. Several hundred million neurons, which account for 30% of the cerebral cortex, are devoted to visual processing. Please review BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 and Neurological Performance for learning about nutritional support of visual signal processing and two marine sources of the essential fatty acid DHA for the retina.
Return to the Index


Micronutritional Applications for Cognition-Intensive Professions: 
Neurological Preservation, Cognitive Flexibility and Bandwidth, Mental Endurance and Executive Decision Making Under Hostile Conditions

The preservation and performance enhancement of cognitive function is a major objective of BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2. For discriminating clients whose cognitive demand must be sustained at their performance ceiling with zero-fault tolerance, such as medical doctors/surgeons, professional musicians, trial attorneys, military special forces/SWAT, advertising creatives, movie directors, actors, computer programmers, mathematicians, engineers and business executives, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the most reliable micronutritional platform available to underwrite those objectives without the use of stimulants or pharmaceuticals. In essence, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 provides productivity tools for the performing mind.

Neurological Preservation
Everyone harbors fear about cognitive decline and memory loss from aging. Although no solution exists to fully arrest neurological decay by pharmaceutical means or otherwise, there are nutrients that protect neurological cell structure and function from several known sources of metabolic stress. Most cognition-intensive professionals operate under formidable time constraints coupled to multiple sources of stress including: jet lag (circadian rhythm entrainment resets) stress; inconsistent and/or alien diet especially during travel; sleep deprivation; and/or inadequate physical conditioning, etc. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 serves to protect vulnerable nervous tissue structures in several different capacities supported by peer-review research.

Nearly everyone has heard about the damaging effects of free radicals, but few know about the brain’s extreme vulnerability to free radical insult. Because nervous tissue is composed of 50% lipids and neurons have a voracious appetite for oxygen to fuel brain energy metabolism, the neuron and associated support cells are a target-rich environment for free radical damage. Anti-oxidants that specifically neutralize free radical in a lipid media are essential for protection of the neuronal membrane and synapse. Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid have often been studied together due to their synergistic ability to ameliorate aging in neurons. The latest study upgraded alpha-lipoic acid to R-lipoic acid and produced excellent results in the mitochondria of aging rat neurons and in a study in 2002 this combination partially reversed memory loss in old rats. A study completed in 2009 using more primitive forms of key brain nutrients than BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 but still a synergistic combination showed a 57% decline in reactive oxygen species (free radical) production in the rat brain in vivo. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 supplies a host of powerful tissue-protecting nutrients including sodium R-lipoate, CoQ10 (ubiquinone), acetyl-L-carnitine, mixed tocopherols, proanthrocyanidins from grape seed extract, hawthorn extract, Ginkgo biloba extract, Meriva® curcumin phytosome, and Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw extract). 

Cognition Amplification: Cognitive Flexibility and Bandwidth, Mental Endurance and Executive Decision Making Under Hostile Conditions
One of the most common uses of nutritional supplements is to enhance athletic performance. There are commercial products that address muscle size, strength, endurance and recovery. Many nutrients studied in the scientific peer-reviewed literature support these claims for several different characteristics of muscle structure and function. The same relationships between scientific support and commercial applications exist for connective tissue. As early as 1990, however, the same could not be said for the nervous system: neurons, glial cells, "the brain", axons, dendrites, synapses, and "cognition" or "thought processes." In the last 25 years this landscape has profoundly changed and the trend is accelerating. The metabolic process of the 100 billion neurons in the human brain is the same as muscle cells when they are operating aerobically using glucose for fuel. To give a vivid comparison of the extreme energetic cost of muscle and neuron, the signaling-related energy use (i.e. "thinking") of grey matter in the human brain is equal to that of the human leg muscle when running a marathon! [marathon energy production: p.42, Table 4-1]. Although the contribution from anaerobic glycolysis (e.g. the energy used by Usain Bolt running the 200 meter dash) to total brain energy consumption is small, it may be strategic in overall cognitive function and is known to occur in astrocytes (a type of glial cell), the most abundant cells in the brain (there are almost one trillion glial cells in the human brain and they have a very complex structure so they warrant serious consideration in the overall cognition equation). They also store glycogen, which is readily transported to local neurons in the form of glucose along with lactate under conditions of sustained energy demand. Micronutritional agents that are known to enhance aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis in athletic endeavors will also modify the metabolic performance of neurons and glial cells. The cognitive ramifications of even small enhancements to neurological energy efficiency opens a new door to tapping into unexplored human intelligence. The BIONX® module for enhancing aerobic metabolism began in 1990, has been evolving for 24 years, and is competition-proven at the highest levels (see Muscle Metabolism Modification: Amplify the Utilization of Available Oxygen Supply on this page for complete explanation). It impacts the performance of every cell in the human body that utilizes aerobic glycolysis for energy production including muscle cells, glial cells and neurons. According to Brazilian neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis in Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines—and How It Will Change Our Lives [30]:

BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 augments aerobic, neuronal energy production in two independent (degenerate) whilst synergistic processes: enlarging the ATP buffer pool and increasing the throughput of the metabolic enzyme bottlenecks via efficiency gains. Inspired by Nicolesis' Relativistic Brain Hypothesis, imagine adding an "overdrive gear" to a neural circuit's energy allowance ("neuron spike budget").

The issue has not been one of a lack of micronutrients to enhance neurological performance, it has been one more of assessing benefits at the system level: "ideas, cognition and thought" are elusive, nebulous concepts at best and have resided under the purview of philosophy since the ancient Greeks. Since 1990 hundreds of peer-reviewed papers have been published on assessment of the impact of nutrients on behavior and neurological function in different capacities on mammalian models from mice to humans. The empirical evidence has validated many nutrients but the definition of performance is not well defined due to the subjective nature of intelligence and consciousness. The big shift in cognitive studies has been one from philosophy of mind to the exploding universe of neuroscience: the study of mind and cognition is now in the crosshairs of scientific query and engineering discipline.

The scientific method only provides guidance and tools to take us part of the way when it comes to human intelligence and its enhancement. Scientific experiments can tell us if a nutrient can improve the speed of mice solving a maze in quest of cheese or a human's ability to recall more test words 48 hours later but it is nearly impossible to evaluate scientifically meaningful, higher-order cognitive function in real-world settings like your own. Since no one knows the relationship between a thought, the neuroendocrine environment and neural circuits, let alone the "biochemistry and biophysics of a thought", a different approach is mandated to assess progress on the organism level in real-world contexts. System engineering and elements of cognitive psychology are effective means to assess the efficacy of micronutritional systems on high-level cognitive performance. The continuous development of BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 for cognition amplification is driven by two independent inputs that then converge with the evolution of the supermodel: (1) updated BIONX® performance feedback from client's experience in the field with particular emphasis on "Red Zone Operators'" exposure to the far right edge of the cognitive performance envelope ("red-lining" at the limits of the mental focus/mental endurance continuum per the eight traits below); and (2) new nutraceuticals and new studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific arena that then enter the BIONX® design review pipeline.

What are we looking at for cognitive performance assessment? What does "cognition amplification" really mean to our clients and to their lives? How do we bridge and reconcile the dualistic chasm between the objective world of observed behavior, theories of brain function, and the subjective world of perception, qualia and ideas? These are the mental performance traits of mid- to high-level cognitive function under examination for BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2:

1. Focus (zero-tolerance for loss of attention, "in the zone", attenuation of mental chatter (mental noise discrimination, meditation without an object), situational awareness, front-sight focus, "eye of the tiger" intensity);

2. Mental clarity (thought train is clear and not "fuzzy" (high cognitive signal-to-noise ratio), creative ideation "pops out", high mental bandwidth);

3. Learning efficiency of movements by observation (dynamic visualization | mirror neuron hypothesis) and conceptual (i.e."book") learning (short- to long-term memory via consolidation);

4. Effortless long-term memory recall when writing, thinking, or speaking extemporaneously with particular emphasis on pattern recognition and analogy creation;

5. Flexibility of thought (ability to quickly adapt to fluid internal (i.e. ability to change perspective or frame of reference) and external change (think of a jazz musician like Miles Davis live flowing with a jazz quartet), "thinking on your feet", adaptive creativity, contingency management on the fly (i.e. rapid awareness and abandonment of unproductive behaviors, Boyd Cycle/OODA Loop enhancement);

6. Visualization clarity (stability of image (i.e. minimal fragmentation or distortion; a fleeting flash or sustained?), prominence of detail, and sharpness quality: under environmental conditions ranging the full gamut from: ideal meditation =>  noisy/distractive/alien => combat hot zone);

7. Mental endurance (attentional performance (high mental bandwidth) over long time periods without lapse, reliable access to "flow"); and

8. Execution of the deep connection (the nonpareil quality of intelligence but is the most elusive to achieve and to hypothesize falsifiable cause-and-effect relations).

None of these traits qualify for a scientific study due to their purely subjective nature and present lack of theory to explain them but they are unquestionably upper-register mental performance characteristics you can assess for yourself and only by yourself—they are purely experiential on the interior but still subject to your qualitative examination. More importantly, in this information age, these are performance traits that contribute high-impact value directly to your life. In the 24-year process of evolving the BIONX® platform, it only became possible to define and discuss these eight traits after the supermodel became sufficiently complex; until that point, there was insufficient synergy to produce the network effects for emergence of impact on these eight performance traits. In other words, it is impossible to say that "nutrient X is responsible for trait 1 and nutrient Y + Z is for trait 2" like you can for a mouse navigating a maze. Reductionism fails here and systems engineering and modeling prevails: it takes the entire specification at sufficient dosage for a threshold time period to achieve results. Delta P or changes in your performance (the output) is evaluated against S (stress profile ("What stresses does the organism perceive?")), D (dosage/kg bodyweight/day), and t (time) [S, D, and t are the inputs]. The dosage and time are not concrete but as a heuristic guideline are: 1 tablet per 12-15 pounds of bodyweight per day for 60 days provides a starting point which then can be altered based on delta P observations. In this regard, BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is a very responsive toolset that invites your experimentation.

Now, let us take these eight traits and interweave them as sub-functions at the next higher level of integration. Examples of this in the real-world context of human performance are: 

a software programmer staying in the zone doing an "all-nighter"; 
oral arguments of a trial attorney in court under hostile conditions;
an intricate surgical operation that is "touch and go" for several uninterrupted hours; 
a rock band on world tour performing multiple times per week;
a movie director under severe time constraints filming a complex scene in parallel with environmental difficulties; 
an NFL quarterback and coaching staff under game conditions; 
an Academy Award-winning or professional Shakespearean acting performance; 
a long and intricate ballet performance on stage on opening night; 
a SWAT team engaged in a hostage situation;
Special Forces on a high-risk mission with contingencies; 
a mathematician working on a very abstract problem previously unsolved; 
a business executive traveling internationally two weeks out of every month making high-level presentations;
a high-level chess match; 
a classical pianist playing a Chopin concerto to a live audience without a music score; 
defending a PhD dissertation; 
the work of a professional artist like a painter or sculptor converting an abstract idea to physical media; and 
writing a script for a play or movie with multiple, threaded story lines with complex, nuanced dialogue. 

All of these scenarios are acts of mental performance that red-line at the limits of the mental focus/mental endurance continuum while not meeting any reasonable scientific criteria of measurement from the interior (neuroscience) but with viable behavioral (psychological) performance assessment from the outside (like a simulator evaluation or grading a pianist's performance or a Special Forces mission debrief). As opposed to monolithic standardized tests, these scenarios require creativity and/or managing multiple contingencies under real-world, difficult constraints that—in aggregate—push the limits of your personal, cognitive-performance envelope.

F-22 Raptor pilots fly the most sophisticated fighter planes in history and undergo extensive evaluations of their physical and mental capabilities to make complex decisions under hostile conditions using the most technologically-advanced flight simulators in the world. Their cognitive performance (decision making from an external perspective) is measured under variable circumstances including no-win conditions (non-survivable scenarios). Our Raptor pilot client improved his simulator performance scores while using BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 under such conditions. Similar outcomes have been reported from our Navy SEAL clients both in testing and combat conditions and from other Red Zone Operators in many walks of life over the years akin to the above list. Cognitive-intensive professionals operate under conditions where the eight traits are in play on demand. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 provides productivity tools for the performing mind.

Partial roster of nutrient components for cognitive function (structural, informational, and tissue-incorporated agents): 
sodium R-lipoate
acetyl-L-carnitine
Meriva® curcumin phytosome
5-Loxin® (Boswellia serrata extract)
grape seed extract (Activin®)
Ginkgo biloba extract (standardized)
anchovy/sardine-sourced essential fatty acids EPA/DHA
DSM life'sDHA® (algae sourced essential fatty acid DHA)
trans-ferulic acid

Partial roster of nutrient components for cognitive function (metabolic agents): 
creatine monohydrate
hawthorn extract (standardized)
CoQ10 (ubiquinone)
pantothenic acid
pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutaric acid
trisodium phosphate
magnesium Chelazome® amino acid chelate
magnesium orotate

Please review BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 and Neurological Performance for more in-depth information.

Return to the Index


Harvesting Breakthrough Talent: A New Tool for Discovering Potential Talent in Farm League and Player Development Programs
Often the difference between a young, upcoming player and a veteran in the left-tail (the opposite of an All-Star in the right-tail of the performance distribution curve) of a major league roster is a small difference in control* or the inability to stay healthy long enough to stabilize a certain performance level. Differences in micronutritional profiles on a chronic basis can easily prevent a player from moving to the next level for three reasons: (1) recovery is inadequate to support training regimens (fragile relationship between training load and adaptive response); (2) lack of one or several key nutrients forming a metabolic bottle neck (not just essential nutrients like vitamins or minerals which are essential to survive but nutrients from the entire micronutritional spectrum required to achieve performance at the individual's genetic ceiling); and (3) an injured player or post-surgery player in need of accelerated healing response to transition from physical therapy or minor league to major league status (see Maximizing Adaptive Response, Part 2: Injuries and Healing and the above section Accelerated Healing in the Pursuit of the 24-Hour Pull-Up World Record). Full-scale biological response is only possible if all metabolic critical paths and their inherent bottle necks are satisfactorily remedied. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the only micronutritional toolset capable of achieving this objective.

In regards to screening potential candidates on farm league programs, administering BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 could reveal some performance breakthroughs in a 90-day window that you would never discovery otherwise**: a 10% difference in control due to sub-optimal micronutrition would transform a player from marginal status to an upside surprise if administered in concert with proper training. A single, undetected micronutritional error can keep a player parked on a plateau indefinitely. The cost-benefit analysis of this approach is simple: a small subset of the population undergoing the discovery process respond in an unpredictable, extraordinary fashion. Unpredictable because it is impossible to know who will respond extraordinarily—but some will.  This is risk management where when you throw the dice it is nothing but upside, but you only gain if exposed to the payoff.*** In the words of Branch Rickey: "From quantity comes quality." Think of using fertilizer in growing crops or running a nursery—or not.

Yes, player development programs are a number's game but the odds can be tilted in your direction using this approach. On the other hand, not using this toolset is harboring the hidden risk of nonperforming assets while leaving talent development up to chance—and on chance's nebulous and expensive time schedule. Proper management of a team's biological assets includes administration of state-of-the-art micronutrition and is a major area to gain competitive advantage due to omission error: there is a natural tendency to focus on what we understand and therefore do, rather on what we don't understand and therefore don't do. No micronutritional assessment exists that can measure all the components in a full-spectrum micronutritional system like BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the only micronutritional platform in the world for harvesting breakthrough talent.
 
Footnotes to above section
"Control" in the cybernetic sense is synonymous with task accuracy and is a measure of precision or reliable repeatability: the statistical difference between your intention and outcome—did you throw a strike or was it just outside the strike zone? The smaller the variance, the better the control. A CEP with a smaller radius at a given range is an improvement in control: can you hit 10 approach shots from the same spot under windless conditions less than 7 feet from the pin? Can you pitch a fastball at 100 MPH 10 times in a row within a 6 inch radius? The movie Moneyball showcases the outcome of the use of sterile, agnostic, quantitative, statistical methods on baseball player performance in the determination of specific, winning specifications or quantifiable traits, a formula for winning. The essence of this formula, if viewed through a biological lens—in lieu of a reductionist, statistical one—is largely defined by control and control's determinants such as strength, power, and visual acuity. A superior baseball player has better control of his body, has better control catching and throwing the ball, and has better bat control. Because of control, the superior baseball player has better stats: stats are a means of measuring control but stats are not a means of increasing control. Control is the single most important factor in what a team pays for in a player, so if you want stats you need control but to increase control you must understand the biology of motor control and what influences its adaptive response to training stress. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the Rosetta stone to the control puzzle.

** The original use of this unique approach was done in Australia with thoroughbred racehorses with an equine version of a product of similar scope to BIONX® design principles from our sister company Equine Ergogenics in the mid-1990s and was effective even for use in utero.

*** In Taleb risk analysis[31], there are scenarios where the costs are known and limited but the benefits are unpredictable in regards to timing and amplitude (value). Taleb calls these positive black swans. In financial options trading, these are long-tenor, out-of-the-money call options that become close to or in-the-money before expiration. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 in this context is a textbook example of a positive black swan scenario: there is a fixed and small cost (BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2) that exposes you to extraordinary payoffs (the emergence of talent).
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Aerobic Power Enhancement and its Potential Impact on the NFL 
The application of increasing maximal aerobic power and aerobic metabolic efficiency is unexplored territory for "anaerobic/strength" sports such as football, hockey, basketball and baseball. The reason for this is that it has been believed for decades that aerobic metabolism plays only a minor role in these sports and, consequently, is ignored. The rationale for supporting this belief is no longer valid; aerobic metabolism has a much greater role than previously understood [4, 5]. The consequences and opportunities of these findings are large. It is self-evident that increasing maximal aerobic power has direct benefit for hockey, basketball, soccer and greater than marginal benefit for football skill-position players like running backs, receivers, kick returners and defensive backs, but the principal benefit for these sports using this approach, if taken to its practical and safe limit, is primarily the conservation of intramuscular stores of glycogen and, in a secondary role, increasing the rate of creatine phosphate resynthesis. Even a slightly enhanced shift of ATP generation in favor of aerobic glycolysis versus anaerobic glycolysis (what actually occurs is an extension of the aerobic glycolytic envelope because these two processes are structurally-coupled in sequential stages) produces a cumulative glycogen sparing effect resulting in an increased energy-reserve capacity that
matters greatly in the late phases of these sports due to catastrophic fatigue ("running out of gas", i.e. glycogen). Consuming carbohydrate drinks and even an intravenous infusion do not compensate for the extremely high rate of intramuscular glycogen losses. Anaerobic glycolysis produces twice the rate of ATP production (thus the high force/power production) as aerobic glycolysis but at a glucose (glycogen) cost of 18-fold (2 ATP/glucose vs. 36ATP/glucose). This 18-fold differential (not 10, 20, or 80% but a 1800% difference) in fuel consumption is a remarkable fact that can be exploited to create a distinct competitive advantage.
Logic of Human Energy Production diagram

Visualization of Fuel Burn Rate
To put this in perspective, visualize an INDYCAR that produces 1200 horsepower and goes 230 MPH with a burn rate of 3 gallons per mile. If you had a 200 gallon gas tank and the race were 50 miles you would logically go flat out because you would have 50 gallons left at the finish line. But given that you cannot refuel and the race was 80 miles, would you go flat out? No, you wouldn't because you couldn't. You would need an additional car. Now imagine making a modification to the engine where the maximal power output remained the same but the burn rate from half-throttle to full-throttle dropped 8% or more. Wouldn't you be able to go full-throttle longer after the modification and gain separation from your flagging rivals?

The Metabolic Dimension of the New NFL Game Style
A vivid example of the metabolic consequences of increasing the rate of play is the recent evolution and proliferation of the 2-minute offense (circa Johnny Unitas era) to the continuous use of a no-huddle offense: this has changed the game far more than tactically and strategically. With the duration of consecutive plays ("snaps") falling below 30 seconds, the metabolic demand profile of the NFL is converging on basketball. The impact of this adaptation has not been recognized on the metabolic level: reliance on anaerobic metabolism (both alactic and lactic) is no longer a reliable strategy to win football games even at the elite college level. Intramuscular glycogen stores are decreased 36% with just 10 intervals of 6 second maximal bursts with 30 seconds rest [5]. Once a large proportion of intramuscular glycogen stores have been depleted the performance of the athlete drastically declines from performance in the first quarter (e.g. the 40 yard dash time increases as a function of glycogen depletion but understand this is a relative phenomenon: your opponent is slowing down too). This is because high intensity exercise preferentially depletes fast twitch fibers first [1]; production of explosive power and top-end speed degrades during the course of the game. For example, the Achilles' heel of the highly-valued "shut-down" cover cornerback is his gas tank. If he had to cover multiple deep "go" routes in the first half his speed would degrade markedly by the third quarter to the point he could no longer prevent exploitable separation from a receiver having blinding speed with a fuel tank of gas. Rotating players (a second or third player on the depth chart offer additional "gas tanks" although these "cars" are not the same caliber as the "starting car") and using exogenous oxygen on the sideline marginally helps but the most direct solution is conserving glycogen stores by modification of oxygen transport (systemic cardiovascular) while simultaneously enhancing the bottlenecks of metabolism (muscle biochemistry) that exist between the integration of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis. Rotation of defensive linemen on plays even of the same category of down-and-distance is becoming more common in the NFL and even in elite NCAA Division 1 programs because of fatigue and performance erosion (lower-body glycogen depletion). At higher altitude, such as Sports Authority Field ("Mile High Stadium"), glycogen depletion is accelerated relative to sea-level stadiums exacerbating the fatigue problem. Denver players are acclimatized to the decreased ambient oxygen concentration whereas their visiting opponents are not. This is a distinct team-level competitive advantage due to the differential in oxygen transport capacities*.

Alactic anaerobic metabolism (the phosphagen system) has been partially addressed by supplemental oral creatine monohydrate. Unfortunately, creatine phosphate (CP) is resynthesized in muscle mitochondria via aerobic metabolism (including fat oxidation) and is rate-limited by oxygen availability [16]. Supplementing creatine monohydrate does help by increasing the intramuscular creatine pool and to a limited degree with resynthesis but its restoration (inside mitochondria: C + P => CP) between plays is solely dependent on aerobic metabolism; is rate-limited by oxygen availability and pH (impaired by acidosis); is markedly slower in fast twitch muscle than slow twitch (slow twitch is nearly irrelevant to football performance); and can take up to 50-60 seconds to recover just to 50% of baseline [2, 3]. Free creatine (i.e. creatine not bound to a phosphate group because it has been expended by alactic anaerobic metabolism in a previous effort) is useless for force production and athletic performance in subsequent efforts (plays): it must be resynthesized between efforts. This problem is non-linearly amplified as the duration between plays decreases (i.e. the work to rest ratio skyrockets: there is a huge game-changing difference between snap counts in 20 vs. 30 vs. 40 second intervals relative to fatigue acceleration; think "Super no huddle"). In sports like football that demand constant CP resynthesis as opposed to sports like Olympic lifting or the 100 meter dash which do not, enhancement of resynthesis is theoretically more important than increasing the CP pool but executing both is optimal. Players cannot use their oxygen tanks between plays on the field but they can improve oxygen transport by other means while on the field via the approach described here. To fully execute this strategy, a multifactorial, systems biology approach is obligatory. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is the only product in the world with these capabilities.

Micronutritional Components for Aerobic Power, Glycogen-Sparing and Cardiovascular Function: A Multifactorial, Systems Biology Approach
1. Cardiovascular Modification: Deliver More Oxygen to Working Muscles

At the organism level, the objective is to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the arterial blood supply. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 achieves the objective via three degenerate (independent) approaches that target heart metabolic and myocardial (mechanical/inotropic effects) function [17]. Trisodium phosphate on the organism level increases VO2 max by 9-10% [6, 7, 8] and increases oxygen pulse (amount of oxygen in arterial blood per heart beat [ml O2/HR]) by 15% [7]. Trisodium phosphate on the myocardial level increases ejection fraction by 5% under maximal conditions (volume of blood ejected from left ventricle per contraction as measured by 2D echocardiogram) [6].

Hawthorn extract (Crataegus oxycantha, standardized to 2% vitexin-2"-rhamnoside) is the most potent inotropic cardiotonic agent in the global botanical repertoire. Inotropy refers to effects on the force with which the heart muscle contracts and is measured by changes in stroke volume and/or ejection fraction that are parameters of cardiac output. Hawthorn is inotropic by means independent from trisodium phosphate. Hawthorn increases coronary and myocardial circulation and improves systolic contraction and ejection fraction [9, 10, 11, 12]. In addition to trisodium phosphate and hawthorn, magnesium orotate has been used to enhance myocardial contractility and improve exercise tolerance in trained athletes [13, 14]. Magnesium orotate enhances the functional reserves of the trained heart and accounts for its use in sport applications [15].

2. Muscle Metabolism Modification: Amplify the Utilization of Available Oxygen Supply (RETURN to early BIONX® development)     (RETURN to Cognition Amplification)
At the local level (i.e. within working muscle), the objective is to increase the availability of oxygen in order to extend the aerobic glycolytic envelope and increase the anaerobic threshold. Under all but the most intense, intermittent burst activities, if more intramuscular oxygen is available, it will be consumed and this has a dramatic impact on the conservation of precious glycogen supply and will impact PC recycling because of oxygen availability and increased pH. This is most relevant to the lower body since these large muscles are active on much closer to a continuous "non-spiky" basis (a much higher duty cycle than the upper body) and operate with aerobic enzyme systems at maximal activity. Late in games it is "heavy legs", not "heavy arms" that define fatigue and performance erosion. In fact, the discovery and exploitation of the starkly different fatigue profiles between upper and lower body in football is virgin territory to disrupt the delicate parity in the NFL. Tactically, specific high-value players that can be exposed to multiple 5-second sprints can be targeted and neutralized metabolically by depleting a large proportion of their fast-twitch, lower body glycogen stores over the course of a few drives or by half time. Strategically, the exploited vulnerability creates offensive "big play" opportunities by late third quarter due to erosion of peak speed, explosive power and agility.

Using a systems biologic approach, intramuscular oxygen flow rate is enhanced by cardiovascular measures (systemically/globally) and aerobic metabolic efficiency is addressed by reducing the impact of the bottleneck enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC: EC 1.2.4.1EC 2.3.1.12EC 1.8.1.4) linking the output (pyruvate) from anaerobic glycolysis with its input for aerobic glycolysis (locally within recruited muscle). Both these strategies increase maximal oxygen uptake but do so through degenerate (independent) pathways [17]. As an additional degenerate measure, high levels of pantothenic acid, which is a direct precursor of acetyl coenzyme-A (a potential rate-limiting metabolite in aerobic glycolysis), is loaded to cellular saturation. High-dose oral loading of pantothenic acid increases aerobic efficiency at 75% of VO2 max while decreasing lactate production [19, 20]. The PDC catalyzes by oxidative decarboxylation pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme-A, the input to aerobic glycolysis. Given sufficient oxygen, ATP (energy for muscular contraction) is produced aerobically in lieu of pure anaerobic processes at a greatly reduced glycogen cost.

Independent of cardiovascular modification (i.e. without effect on oxygen pulse), the use of pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutaric acid at physiologic significant dose increases VO2 max by 6% and significantly reduces lactate production at supramaximal loads [18]. In other words, scientific studies verify that both of these degenerate, independent pathways significantly increase VO2 max under supramaximal loads. Given systems biology, there is a high likelihood that these two approaches implemented simultaneously are not only degenerate but also synergistic since multiple, independent, potential, rate-limiting targets are addressed.

Bioavailability Amplifier to All Micronutritional Components
Black Pepper (Bioperine®) is an extract from the fruit of black pepper that increases the blood levels of nearly all of the nutrient classes. For example, a 5 mg dose of Bioperine® increases the blood level of CoQ10 by 31.8%, vitamin C by 52.3%, selenium by 42.6% and beta-carotene by 61.2%.

* Denver Broncos have the best home record in the last 32 years. Return to the Index


Quality Control, Manufacturing, and Engineering
BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 is manufactured by a laboratory that is GMP Registered by NSF International. The laboratory uses blenders capable of homogeneously blending nutrient concentrations as disparate as a 12,000:1 ratio so that BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 assays within acceptable tolerances of the label specifications. This is very important as nutrient manufacturers are beginning to require a label review to make sure their required levels per serving are present to ensure nutrient benefit. The laboratory uses low temperature blending to improve disintegration thus ensuring maximal absorption potential and to not denature the chemical structure of thermally fragile botanical and connective tissue components. The laboratory also tests all in-bound ingredients for impurities like toxic heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.) and virulent bacteria and viruses. BIONX SUPERMODEL® 2 also meets or exceeds the quality standards established by the U.S Pharmacopeia 36 which addresses among many other properties whether a capsule or tablet adequately dissolves in time for it to be absorbed.
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References
[1] Gollnick, P.D., Armstrong, R.B., Sembrowich, W.L., Shepherd, R.E., and Saltin, B., Glycogen depletion pattern in human skeletal muscle fibers after heavy exercise, J. Appl. Physiology, 34(5): 615-618, 1973
[2] Kjaer, M., Krogsgaard, M., Magnusson, P., Engebretsen, L., Roos, H., Takala, T., and Woo, S.L., Textbook of Sports Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects of Sports Injury and Physical Activity, Blackwell Science Ltd., 2003, p. 192
[3] Maughan, R. and Gleeson, M., The Biochemical Basis of Sports Performance, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 84-86
[4] Parloin, M.L., Chesley, A., Matsos, M.P., Spriet, L.L., Jones, N.L., and Heigenhauser, J.F., Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 277: E890-E900, 1999
[5] Gaitanos, G.C., Williams, C., Boobis, L.H., and Brooks, S., Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise, J. Appl. Physiol., 75(2): 712-719, 1993
[6] Kreider, R.B., Miller, G.W., Schenck, D., Cortes, C.W., Miriel, V., Somma, T., Rowland, P., Turner, C., and Hill, D., Effects of phosphate loading on metabolic and myocardial responses to maximal and endurance exercise, Inter. J. Sports Nutrition, 2, 20-47, 1992
[7] Czuba, M., Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., Cholewa, J., and Woska, S., Effects of sodium phosphate loading on aerobic power and capacity in off road cyclists, J. Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 591-599, 2009
[8] Folland, J.P., Stern, R., and Brickley, G., Sodium phosphate loading improves laboratory cycling time-trial performance in trained cyclists, J. Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(5): 464-468, 2008
[9] Bruneton, J., Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants, Lavoisier Publishing, 1995, pp. 330-331
[10] Bisset, N.G., Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, CRC Press, 1994, pp. 161-164
[11] Fong, H.H., Bauman, J.L., Hawthorn, J. Cardiovascular Nursing, Jul; 16(4): 1-8, 2002
[12] Crataegus oxycantha (Hawthorn) Monograph, Alternative Medicine Review, Vol. 15, Nr. 2, pp. 164-167, 2010
[13] Classen, H.G., Magnesium orotate--experimental and clinical evidence, Rom. J. Intern. Med., 42(3): 491-501, 2004
[14] Rosenfeldt, F.L., Metabolic supplementation with orotic acid and magnesium orotate, Sep; 12 Suppl 2:147-152, 1998
[15] Stepura, O.B., Tomaeva, F.E., Zvereva, T.V., Orotic acid as a metabolic agent, Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk., (2): 39-41, 2002
[16] Trump, M.E., Heigenhauser, G.J.F., Putman, C.T., and Spriet, L.L., Importance of muscle phosphocreatine during intermittent maximal cycling, J. Appl. Physiol., 80(5): 1574-1580, 1996
[17] Definition of degeneracy (biology).
[18] Marconi, C., Sassi, G, Cerretelli, G., The effect of an alpha-ketogluterate-pyridoxine complex on human maximal aerobic and aerobic performance, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol., 49(3): 307-17, 1982
[19] Litoff, D., Scherzer, H., and Harrison, J., Effects of pantothenic acid supplementation on human exercise, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 17: 287, 1985
[20] Kelly, G.S., Pantothenic Acid, Alternative Medicine Review, volume 16, number 3, pp. 263-274, 2011
[21] Bucci, L., Nutrition Applied to Injury Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, CRC Press, 1995, p. 167
[22] Schwitters, B. and Masquelier, J., OPC in Practice, Alfa Omega Editrice, (Italy), 1995, pp. 57-62
[23] Bucci, L., Nutrition Applied to Injury Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, CRC Press, 1995, pp. 141-142
[24] Posner, M., Cameron, K.L., Wolf, J.M., Belmont, P.J. Jr, Owens, B.D., Epidemiology of Major League Baseball injuries, Am. J. Sports Med. 39(8):1676-80, 2011
[25] Karakolis, T., Bhan, S., Crotin, R.L., An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers, J. Strength Cond. Res., Oct 19 [Epub ahead of print], 2012
[26] Bradbury, J.C., Forman, S.L., The impact of pitch counts and days of rest on performance among major-league baseball pitchers, J. Strength Cond. Res., 26(5):1181-7, 2012
[27] Wright, R.W., Steger-May, K., Klein, S.E., Radiographic findings in the shoulder and elbow of Major League Baseball pitchers, Am. J. Sports Med. 35(11):1839-43, 2007 
[28] Goodson, F., The Evolution and Function of Cognition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, pp. 68-69
[29] Pickering, Andrew, The Cybernetic Brain, University of Chicago Press, 2010, p.6
[30] Nicolelis, Miguel, Beyond Boundaries, Times Books, 2011, pp.70, 269-273
[31] Taleb, Nassim, Antifragile, Random House, 2012, pp. 236-237, p. 444 (Figure 35 left)
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